Thursday, June 26, 2008

Pakistan's Foriegn Policy

Pakistan's Foriegn Policy:Major(R)Khalid Nasr

The Great divide of the subcontinent was in consequence of shift in British colonial policy based on four (4) distinct factors emerging out of the World War-ll.

(a). Formation of Indian National Army (INA) under the leadership of Subhash Chandra Bose, who defected from India & joined the Japanese in Tokyo; organizing an army of Indian Prisoners of War for the liberation of India. His three (3) well known lieutenants included Sehgal, Dhillon, and Shah Nawaz, who were originally sentenced to death but subsequently acquitted when top political leadership of India fought for their cause.

(b). Revolt of Royal Indian Navy in Bombay.

(c). Promise extended to Indian National Congress (when Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi joined Congress headed by Baal Ganga Dhar Tilak almost at the end of World War-l) if they extended helping hand to British in their war efforts. Evidently Indians were a part of the British Army and pressure was mounting eversince till the end of World War-ll for Independence to India.

(d). After Lord Wavell, Admiral (Lord) Louis Mountbatten was sent to India with the mission for the grant of Independence to India & a number of missions were sent to India for reaching a consensus; but the objective was still a far-fetched dream for lack of concensus by Indian National Congress & Muslim League. Political cleavage kept widening between these two political parties after the famous Lucknow Pact of 1916. June 3 Plan was also not acceptable to Congress, the British issued an ultimatum that they were quitting India by handing over the Government to the party accepting the Plan by a certain specific date. Grabbing the opportunity, Muslim League which had maintained silence after passing the Pakistan Resolution, accepted the Plan; and Pakistan came into being as a complete surprise when the Nation was least prepared for it. Division of Assets was withheld by the Indian Government & Pakistan was still waiting for its troops when loot & arsenal started; and Kashmir was occupied by Indian forces after the declaration of annexation by Maharaja Hari Singh; whereas such declarations were not given any weight inasmuch as Junagarh and Hyderabad (Deccan) were concerned. This was the background of hostilities between these two emerging States in August, 1947 and it was in this scenario that foreign policies of India and Pakistan were formulated by Jawahir Lal Nehru and late Mr Liaquat Ali Khan. So far so good about the scenario, but formulation of Foreign Policy was a direct reflection on the choice of options exercised by these two hostile neighbouring contries; which again reflected on the native intelligence of political leadership on either side of the border.

Late Mr Liaquat Ali Khan was extended an invitation for his proposed visit to Moscow & Washington DC both, but he preferred visiting Washington DC ignoring that Moscow was an immediate neighbour & could help his country in the event of emergency. To the contrary, Pundit Jawahir Lal Nehru preferred Moscow. Whereas Pakistan invited hostilities of the Communist Block & Eastern European countries by joining SEATO, CENTO, and NATO, India (known as Bharat after independence) was semmingly a member of non-alligned movement; though in reality it had been drawing benefits both from the Communists and the Capitalist block.

Despite agreeing that Kashmir was a controversial issue & its fate was to be decided through plebiscite in accordance with the wishes of the local population, Bharat went back from its commitment, and started calling Kashmir its atoot ang. Violations of the internationally acknowledged Line of Control (commonly known as LoC) were made permanent in utter defiance of the international opinion in Kargil & Siachen. These parts of Azad Jammu & Kashmir were forcibly occupied by Bharat without a single voice being raised by the international community (including the Muslim States).Egypt sided with Bharat almost on all occasions, considering Pakistan as its rival for the leadership of Muslim World; whereas Bharat had an extremely unenviable track record in honouring its internaional commitments. Its violations of Indus Basin Water Treaty (including the recent one of Buglihar dam) speaks volumes about its moral acumen on intrnational plane.

Despite Pakistan's pacts with the Western powers including US, the latter didnt gain anything in terms of its defence during Indo-Pak war in the Year-1965. War came as a sudden undeclared dawn attack on September 6, 1965 when Pakistan was least prepared for it, and the country was saved by offering sacrifices by heroes like Major Aziz Bhatti Shaheed, Sarfraz Rafiqui Shahed & others.

Bharat had continualy been focussing it attention on dismemment of Pakistan. Durga Parshad Dhar (commonly known as D. P. Dhar), an official of Indian Foreign Service was sent for studying the causes of Muslim downfall in Spain. and he formed RAW (the notorious Research & Analysis Wing) directly responsible for the secession of East Pakistan (now known as Bengla Desh) while working under close collaboration of Indian Institute of Strategic Studies headed by Subramunyum. Contrary to our expectations, the much awaited American 7th Fleet didn't come to Pakistan's rescue despite its presence close by. In other words, Pakistan paid a rather heavy price for its friendship with the US; whereas Bharat made considerable gains both from Eastern Europe & West despite being avowedly non-alligned.

In addition to above, who is not aware of our role against the expansionsm of USSR & its dismemberment due to its invasion on Afghanistan. Whereas we have invited hostilities of USSR on this score, we have also been subjected to enormous population pressure & a noticeable rise in crime rate due to influx of Afghan Refugees. To the horror of our law-enforcement agencies, or market is overflowing with the latest weaponry, posing law & order problems for us. Thanks to US policy, these armed conflicts occurring in Afghanistan & its adjoining regions have now been brought well within our territory. Not only this, there is lot of interference in our internal affairs.

There is hardly any international ethics.League of Nations failed due to its discriminatory treatment of the developed and the under-developed. United Nations also seems to be at the verge of collapse; unless timely remedial measures are taken without any further delay.

Accepted that nuclear armament is posing a threat to World peace, but adoption of two different yardsticks doesn't give any assurance whatsoever. Common sense (which is so uncommon) doesn't accept that nuclear weaponry with Pakistan or Iran is a threat t World peace; whereas nuclear arms of US are absolutely harmless. Common Sense does acknowledge that US has a limited exposure to co-existence due to its geographic segregation & limited experience of international relations. It didn't participate in War efforts of Allies till Pearl Harbour was attacked.It was caught by surprise when Japanese attacked Pearl Harbour. Besides, it was US which used the nuclear device on Hiroshima & Nagasaki almost towards the end of WW-ll and at the closure of Japanese theatre. In addition to above, US policies were a failure in LAOS, Korea, and Vietnam. As per the news items appearing in US papers, their policy is complete failure in Iraq as well. If US has a right to possess nuclear arms, there is hardly any justification for its issuing a warning to any other country including Iran against enrichment of Uranium. Besides, its policies in east Timur were at variance with the ones in Bosnia.

Under the circumstances, Pakistan would be well-advised to reappraise and reevaluate it policies keeping the ground realities in view, and to assign priorities to its national rather than international expectation.


An Insight On Human Rights :Major(R)Khalid Nasr

To ones' utter amazement, emergence of Human Rights in its embryonic form surfaces during the early period of Greek City States; though the early Greeks weren't aware of the present day concept of equality before law. This duality of standards drew a line of demarcation between the free citizens (who were Greeks essentially) and the slaves bought or forced to be included in this category in consequence of their captivity after war. To all intent and purposes, these slaves were treated as personal property of their masters acquiring them in either of the two ways discussed above. Whereas free citizens were held accountable for their actions, the masters were responsible for the acts of their slaves; and were required to compensate to the party suffering a loss because of any indiscrete act on the part of a slave. Whereas patricians & jurors were required to initiate legal action against the misdeeds of a free citizen, the masters had the absolute authority to decide whether their slaves were to be awarded a minor punishment or to suffer death penalty at the hands of their masters. In other words, all free citizens had their respective rights & obligations duly acknowledged by the state, but there was no law to govern the slaves; because they were required to be governed by their own masters.

There were simple set of laws for this almost rural-agrarian socio-economic pattern, wherein every citizen was personally known to every other citizen; and life had not grown complicated. This type of state was bound to come under stress with the passage of time & due to its interaction with other socio-cultural & behavioural configurations. In the West, different concepts of Fundamental Human Rights emerged out of the Social Contract theories evolved by Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau-the philosopher having a main role to play in the well-known French Revolution. Political and socio-economists like Montesquieu, and John Stuart Mill propounded their own respective views in the context of Industrial revolution; simultaneously commenting on Laissez-faire etc.

Broad Categories of Fundamental Rights :

(a). The right to live:It has been acknowledged the World over, and has been treated as inalienable to the extent that suicide is forbidden under the law; and has been declared as punishable under the law. The only exception in the contemporary history treating it as beyond the scope of law was in the case of Japan upto the end of World War-ll under Shintoism. Death penalty is under criticism inasmuch as no moral grounds exist for the state to deprive a murderer of his right to live; because in that event state would be committing an act itself which has been proscribed under its own laws. Abolition of death penalty is on the anvil, even in US; whereas it has already been abolished in Europe.Soldiers offering their services for the defence of their motherland surrender this right in the event of their death during the war. This is the only exception internationally accepted, but loss of human lives during the war have been criticized despite this exception.

(b).The right to associate:It provides an overall cover from right to marry & produce children to association for political activities involving the right to vote and contest for state offices. Similarly the right to form clubs, associations, and celebrations has also been acknowledged as absolute; unless such associations are detrimental to the existence of state itself or are based on misanthropy, racial discrimination, and creation of hatred amongst various sections of society within the state. Apartheid in South Africa & colour bar in US restricted this right when in vogue , but have been legally abolished providing a free opportunity to

(c). The right to earn a living :It is granted in as much as the individual is allowed to own means of production for agriculture and industry; and has been allowed to undertake unlimited productive & commercial activity in the free World; whereas the same is also being permitted gradually by the erstwhile Socialistic & Communist countries. Apart from owning means of production, the right to earn a living through a given profession and/or holding offices of profit under their Government , subject to their suitability for a given job. Forced labour would be an offence punishable under the law, and the employer would be under obligation to adhere to the working hours permitted by the state; and employer would be under obligation to provide health cover and compensation in the event of death /loss of limb by a worker under social securities schemes. No discrimination would be made by the employer on the basis of gender.

(d) The right to mobility within and outside the state:The latter being responsible to ask a foreign government to safeguard his/her life and property by issuing a valid certification in the form of a passport. This document is a certification on the part of the state tht the traveller is a bonafide citizen and the country he is visiting should take necessary measures for his safety etc in accordance with the international law & mutually agreed obligations.

(e).The right to profess a certain creed:It accepts an individual's right to hold & profess a certain creed in accordance with his/ her conscience. The individual in such a case wouldn't be asked to convert from his religion to any other religion forcibly. He/ she would be allowed to shape his/ her life in accordance with the religious dictates of the creed he/she belongs to. Religious rites of birth, marriage, and funeral would be performed in accordance with the religion he/she hails from. State would not adopt any policy of discrimination on the basis of religious beliefs . Whereas this Fundamental Right should have been taken care in the normal course due to professed secularism by a majority of states, yet performance of some of the states have been compromised due to the unfortunate emergence of the concept of clash of civilizations in the recent past. Unnecessary intervention & unjustified armed conflicts resulting in loss of precious human lives has been seen in the Middle East.. The State preempting in the disastrous employment of nuclear power in Japan is insisting that no other power especially in the Muslim World should have access to nuclear technology even for peaceful purposes. Countries like Iran find it difficult to digest, and hence nuclear threat is looming over the Globe without any rhyme or reason. Picture regarding relationship between rights & obligtions is getting hazier day by day; showing divergence & a widening cleavage between theory & practice. There is no international agency including the UN to point out & discourage this dichotomy, which has already taken the toll in the form of League of Nations after World War-l.

Equality before law envisages that all citizens would be equal before law and any discrimination on the basis of race, religion, and economic status would be forbidden. Nobody would be kept under custody without resorting to the prescribed legal procedure. A writ of Habeas Corpus would be admissible for wrongful & undue detention and the person/department violating this right would be punished in accordance with the relevant provisions of the law.

(f). Right to get justice : It involves resort to legal action for seeking justice through courts of law in the event of violations of any of the Fundamental Rights conferred upon individual by the state. In other words, each one of the above referred Fundamental Rights are justiciable and violators thereof can be brought to books for any act of recalcitrancy.

(g) Right of freedom of expression:It acknowledges that all individuals would be free to express their opinion by word of mouth, through publications, and through public media such as Radio,and Television etc. Each individual would be allowed access to information technology (IT).

(h) Right to education:It involves right to receive education upto a certain level free of cost. All citizens would be educated in schools free of cost, and College/University education would be accessible to all citizens. Child labour would be prohibited, and all children would be sent to school upto a certain level.Similarly no discrimination would be made on the basis of gender.

(i) Right to maintenance of health :It involves provision of health facilities to the entire citizenry throughout the country. State would ensure provision of medical cover in the event of illness as well as taking preventive measures against the spreading of any epidemic.

(j) Protection during war: It is afforded to non-combatants members of armed forces and civilians. Those responsible for war crimes are tried for war atrocities. Members of armed forces becoming prisoners of war (POWs) are allowed to retain the dignity of their ranks. Similarly Officers are not to be employed as manual labour ; but are allocated jobs in accordance with their status in the force they come from.

(k)The right to restrict information :During interrogation after captivity prisoners have the right to divulge their name, rank, and number in accordance with the Geneva Convention; and refuse other information in response to the queries over & above this information. This right has, however, seldom been observed & so are the other provisions of Geneva Convention. These rights have invariably been flouted by all concerned during the War & after cessation of hostilities.Whereas discussion goes on against violation of these Fundamental Rights in developing countries especially the non-Jewish & non-Christian states, these violations have seldom been commented upon while occurring in states mostly populated by Christians. US had all along been different yardsticks for Muslim areas such as Bosnia Hertzgovena, East Timur, Palestine, Kashmir, Afghanistan and Pakistan etc. International scenario doesn't paint an enviable picture of the role of US in countries like Iraq, which as per US information media was a case of unwarranted internal interference. Besides, these powers are applying two distinct yardsticks for themselves & others. The case of Cuba is in view in this context. They are pressurizing countries like Pakistan to fight a proxy was for US even at the exorbitant price of creating law & order situation in their own country; whereas Pakistan kept waiting and waiting for their 7th Fleet during the War started by Indians in Bengla Desh. Hence Fundamental Human Rights remain an enigma, particularly for developing countries which seldom receive an even-handed treatment from the powers who matter. In fact, there is no such thing as International Law or International morality; because the guiding principle in 20th Century has been 'might is right'; whereas 21st Century is still expecting to see new dawn providing a legal & physical cover to ensure observance of inalienable concept of Fundamental Human Rights. Shall we be seeing this dawn during our own life-span, is the question which still remains unanswered.

Mind-set change in Muslim world

Mind-set change in Muslim world :Major(R)Khalid Nasr

Keeping in view the intentions of Israel & USA in the new world order, it is high time that we , the muslims must be proactive enough to change our mind-set.The OIC must be more effective & proactive.Alone we are nothing--united ,we are a big thing.
Muslims must seriously introspect on determining their tragic predicament,because the Muslims have abondoned rational thinking. Their anger is justified for the way they are maligned and their glorious achievements are undermined. But anger must not be expressed through counter-anger. We need to answer and rebut all vicious and false propaganda through logic and rational arguments.

The entire West it is not against us, and its not as monolithic as we tend to think.The Muslims could have prevented the massacre of Iraq; but disjointed as we are, the enemy was able to systematically exploit the Muslims.Iran in the main target of our enemies but I foresee a very important role by Iran in the region in the coming scenario.

It is through a change in our mind-set that we can face the challenges we encounter through a collective paradigm of strategic defiance; otherwise the systematic weakening of the muslim countries will continue . The need of the hour is a collective wisdom and effort.In my opinion , we must consider a United States of Islam .

Wednesday, June 25, 2008

Social norms-the basis for interaction in a group/s

As should be evident to students of Social Sciences, the basis for all reactions in a group/s is interaction in a given situation, be it managerial by nature or mere exchange of courtesies.This interaction has been defined as the over or covert communication between two actors, wherein each influences or ties to influence reposes or state of mind of the other party in a palatable or socially acceptable manner. Norms again have been classified in tow different categories, viz norms as defined above & the norms carrying social sanctions in the event of their violation/. The latter category of norms is also known as mores. In the event of the violation of the social norms, the deviant is generally looked at askance & the actors convey their approval or disapproval on the basis of yardsticks evolved over ages and existing since times immemorial. For example gentlemen attending a marriage party in three piece suits with a matching necktie are respected, whereas a person walking into such a party half clad in dhoti & a vest confronts a sardonic smile; which conveys nothing but social disapproval.

By the same argument a leader in a group occupies a central position issuing direct or indirect verbal commands & commands through body language; which influences the state of mind of the other members of the group and determines the future pattern of behaviour. Presuming a situation, wherein the commands are confused & the manager is not sure of the message he wants to convey or else his own behaviour is in clear contradiction of the commands he is issuing or trying to issue. The results would be obvious inasmuch as no member of the group is likely to take him seriously & his words would fall on deaf ears. For example, a manager asking his team to display devotion to duty is generally found sipping tea or gossiping during working hours could hardly expect dedication to the cause when he is negligent of his task & duties. Similarly honesty & integrity require that the manager sets the standards thorough his personal example; failing which he is just talking gobbledegoop. It might be added that entrepreneur hires his labour for their inherent worth of displaying quality in their respective performance & such a hiring conforms to value for money approach; which in layman's terms means such an employees personal contribution for stepping- up quantity & quality of production and maintaining it on an even keel for optimising sales & profits. This concept & other concepts should be applicable both to the unskilled and skilled labour (including management). Besides, Management & the existing leadership are looked upto for guidance in difficult & tense managerial situation; failing which the ones serving under their supervisory control start questioning their appointment in terms of their salaries & perks. This becomes a constant pic-prick unless the situation is resolved by rectifying the weaknesses having crept up or existing for some time. If this state is allowed to continue indefinitely, it would be a continuous retardation which could possibly lead to an absolute collapse

Hence the leadership would be well-advised to undertake constant review of their entire gamut of activities as well as the existing commercial environments for providing incentives to the labour and for boosting-up production. An inacapable leadership wouldn't be able to take the team along & take off stage would never be reached unless the leadership displays sensitivity to three Es, viz Economy, Efficiency, and Effectiveness alongwith a selfless devotion & observance of productive norms; particularly the one relating to personal integrity.

Jameel Zaidi

Tuesday, June 24, 2008


The Clash of Emotions:Major(R)Khalid Nasr
The world today faces not only a clash of civilizations but a clash of emotions as well. The West displays -- and is divided by -- a culture of fear, while the Arab and Muslim worlds are trapped in a culture of humiliation and much of Asia displays a culture of hope.

Fear, Humiliation, Hope, and the New World Order

Thirteen years ago, Samuel Huntington argued that a "clash of civilizations" was about to dominate world politics, with culture, along with national interests and political ideology, becoming a geopolitical fault line. Events since then have proved Huntington's vision more right than wrong. Yet what has not been recognized sufficiently is that today the world faces what might be called a "clash of emotions" as well. The Western world displays a culture of fear, the Arab and Muslim worlds are trapped in a culture of humiliation, and much of Asia displays a culture of hope.

Instead of being united by their fears, the twin pillars of the West, the United States and Europe, are more often divided by them -- or rather, divided by how best to confront or transcend them. The culture of humiliation, in contrast, helps unite the Muslim world around its most radical forces and has led to a culture of hatred. The chief beneficiaries of the deadly encounter between the forces of fear and the forces of humiliation are the bystanders in the culture of hope, who have been able to concentrate on creating a better future for themselves.

These moods, of course, are not universal within each region, and there are some areas, such as Russia and parts of Latin America, that seem to display all of them simultaneously. But their dynamics and interactions will help shape the world for years to come.


The United States and Europe are divided by a common culture of fear. On both sides, one encounters, in varying degrees, a fear of the other, a fear of the future, and a fundamental anxiety about the loss of identity in an increasingly complex world.

In the case of Europe, there are layers of fear. There is the fear of being invaded by the poor, primarily from the South -- a fear driven by demography and geography. Images of Africans being killed recently as they tried to scale barbed wire to enter a Spanish enclave in Morocco evoked images of another time not so long ago, when East Germans were shot at as they tried to reach freedom in the West. Back then, Germans were killed because they wanted to escape oppression. Today, Africans are being killed because they want to escape absolute poverty.

Europeans also fear being blown up by radical Islamists or being demographically conquered by them as their continent becomes a "Eurabia." After the bombings in Madrid in 2004 and London in 2005 and the scares this past summer, Europeans have started to face the hard reality that their homelands are not only targets for terrorists but also bases for them.

Then there is the fear of being left behind economically. For many Europeans, globalization has come to be equated with destabilization and job cuts. They are haunted by the fear that Europe will become a museum -- a larger and more modern version of Venice, a place for tourists and retirees, no longer a center of creativity and influence.

Finally, there is the fear of being ruled by an outside power, even a friendly one (such as the United States) or a faceless one (such as the European Commission).

What unites all these fears is a sense of loss of control over one's territory, security, and identity -- in short, one's destiny. Such concerns contributed to the no votes of the French and the Dutch last year on the referendum on the proposed EU constitution. They also explain the return of strong nationalist sentiments in many European countries -- on display during the recent World Cup tournament.

Some of the same sense of loss of control is present in the United States. Although demographic fears are mitigated by the largely successful integration of Hispanics (compared with the difficulties surrounding the integration of Muslims in Europe), they are clearly present. The quarrel over the Spanish version of the American national anthem echoes the debate over the wearing of headscarves and veils in Europe.

Used to rates of growth significantly higher than those in most European countries, Americans do not fear economic decay the way Europeans do (although they worry about outsourcing). Yet they, too, are thinking of decline -- in their bodies, with the plague of obesity; in their budgets, with the huge deficits; and in their spirit, with the loss of appetite for foreign adventures and a growing questioning of national purpose.

The United States' obsession with security after September 11 is understandable and legitimate. But what has it cost in terms of U.S. influence and image in the world? From the difficulties foreign travelers have entering U.S. territory to the human rights scandals of Guantánamo Bay, terrorists have at least in part succeeded in undermining the United States' claims of moral superiority and exceptionalism by prompting such reactions.

Whereas Europeans try to protect themselves from the world through a combination of escapism and appeasement, Americans try to do so by dealing with the problem at its source abroad. But behind the Bush administration's forceful and optimistic rhetoric lies a somber reality, which is that the U.S. response to the September 11 attacks has made the United States more unpopular than ever. The U.S. intervention in Iraq, for example, has generated more problems than it has solved. Iraq is descending into civil war, and U.S. actions there have tipped the balance of power within the Muslim world to its most radical Shiite elements.


Europeans started to reflect on their own decay after World War I: "We civilizations now know ourselves mortal," the French poet and philosopher Paul Valéry wrote in 1919. The Muslim world, meanwhile, has been obsessed with decay for centuries. When Europe was in its Middle Ages, Islam was at the peak of its Renaissance, but when the Western Renaissance started, Islam began its inexorable fall. From its defeat by a Christian fleet at the Battle of Lepanto, in 1571, to its failure to capture Vienna in 1683, to its final disappearance after World War I, the Ottoman Empire slowly shrank into oblivion.

The creation of the state of Israel in the midst of Arab land could only be seen by Muslims as the ultimate proof of their decay. For Jews, the legitimacy of Israel was manifold; it combined the accomplishment of a religious promise, the realization of a national destiny, and compensation by the international community for a unique crime, the Holocaust. For Arabs, by contrast, it was the anachronistic imposition of a Western colonial logic at the very moment decolonization was getting under way. In their view, crimes of the Christian West, fallen into barbarism against the Jews, were being unfairly paid for by the Muslim East.

The unresolved conflict between Israel and its neighbors has helped turn the culture of humiliation into a culture of hatred. Over time, the conflict's national character has shifted to its original religious basis -- a conflict between Muslims and Jews, if not a clash between Islam and the West at large.

The combination of the deepening civil war in Iraq and the fighting in Lebanon between Hezbollah and Israel has reinforced a sense of outrage in many Muslims that has been fully exploited by Iran and its allies. In a war of images and symbols, Shiite extremists can appear to embody the spirit of resistance to humiliation, getting stronger with each blow they endure.

Globalization, meanwhile, has contributed to the problem. Every day, the Middle East is confronted with the contrast between globalization's winners, essentially the Western world and East Asia, and those who have been left behind.

The culture of humiliation is not limited to the Middle East but extends to the Muslim diaspora in the West as well. The riots that took place in France during the fall of 2005, for example, had an essentially socioeconomic origin, but they were also a lashing out by the disaffected against a society that claims to give them equal rights in principle but fails to do so in practice.

The gap is also, in part, the product of incompatible worldviews, stemming from different historical eras. As societies in Europe are becoming increasingly secular, the importance of religion in the daily life of the Muslim world is increasing. When Europeans look at Islam today, they are reminded of their own zealotry and wars of religion in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This gap in mindset exists between the United States and the Muslim world as well, but it is less profound because the United States remains deeply religious and has even experienced a religious revival lately. Yet fundamentalism within Islam is unique in the sense that it is animated by a dual sense of revenge: by the Shiite minority against the Sunni majority and by the fundamentalists against the West at large.


As the West and the Middle East lock horns, confidence in progress has been moving eastward. An art exhibit displayed in 2005-6 at the Royal Academy of Arts, in London, entitled "China: The Three Emperors, 1662-1795," summarized new China's psychology. The explicit message of the exhibit, sponsored by Beijing, was clear: China is back. The central piece of the exhibit was a huge eighteenth-century painting, in the Jesuit-European style, showing the envoys of the West paying tribute to the Chinese emperor. After two centuries of relative decline, China is progressively recovering its legitimate international status. Its policy of concentrating on economic development while avoiding conflict seems to be working, earning Beijing both material benefits and international respect.

As for India, for the first time in its modern history it has stepped onto the world stage as both an independent and an important power. Cooperating diplomatically with the United States and making economic deals in Europe, the emerging Indian elites are displaying even more pride and optimism than their Chinese counterparts. The world's largest democracy will soon emerge as the most populous country, and it seems to know no limits.

Of course, Cassandras may rightly point out that strategic, economic, social, and political difficulties abound and that the culture of hope could easily collapse on itself like a house of cards. Asia has yet to witness the reconciliation between former enemies that constitutes the most remarkable achievement of postwar western Europe. The level of animosity in China and South Korea over Japan's treatment of the past evokes the situation of Europe in the 1950s. (China seems to have set double standards in this respect, never forgetting Japan's crimes while never remembering its own.) North Korea is a particularly dangerous rogue state. And arms races and nuclear proliferation in East Asia could set the region up for a terrible conflict down the road.

The gap that exists in China between the dynamism of the economy and the near incapacity or total reluctance of the present leadership to implement the most elementary and necessary political reforms does not bode well for the peaceful evolution of the country. Yet despite these concerns, there is hope among both leaders and publics across the region, and it seems likely to last as long as growth continues.


In confronting this clash of emotions, the first priority for the West must be to recognize the nature of the threat that the Muslim world's culture of humiliation poses to Europe and the United States. Denying the threat's existence or responding to it in the wrong way are equally dangerous choices. Neither appeasement nor military solutions alone will suffice. The war that is unfolding is one that the culture of humiliation cannot win, but it is a war nonetheless and one that the West can lose by continuing to be divided or by betraying its liberal values and its respect for law and the individual. The challenge is not figuring out how to play moderate Islam against the forces of radicalism. It is figuring out how to instill a sufficient sense of hope and progress in Muslim societies so that despair and anger do not send the masses into the radicals' arms.

In that regard, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict appears more than ever as a microcosm of and possibly a precedent for what the world is becoming. Israel is the West, surrounded by the culture of humiliation and dreaming of escape from a dangerous region and of reentry into a culture of hope. But it must find a solution to the Palestinian problem first, or else the escape will not be possible. So, too, Europe and the United States seek to permanently banish their fears but will be able to do so only by finding a way to help the Muslim world solve its problems.


Open Letter To President Of Pakistan : Major (R) Khalid Nasr Mr. President! Nobody can deny the fact that you took over with good intentions to serve your nation. You always kept Pakistan First in all your decisions and actions. You improved the global image of Pakistan to the extent that today, Muslim Ummah seeks guidance from you to settle their own issues. You had been fighting against terrorism and fundamentalism in spite of internal and external resistance. You gave us the concept of enlightened moderation. Foreign investment in Pakistan has increased considerably during your tenure although the law and order situation remained un favorable since 9/11.You are the only one who addressed Indian Media like a loin in their own territory. You are the one who preferred to die rather than land your aircraft in Indian Territory. You are the one who talked to Mr. Tony Blair and Mr. Bush eye into eye on issues of Pakistan’s interest. But, Mr. President! Unfortunately, your popularity in the common man decreased with the passage of time, simply because the fruits of our improving economy never passed down to the common man. Now, Mr. President! You must do some thing for the common man. You must ensure additional relief in utilities like electricity, telephone and natural gas. You must ensure a substantial decrease in petroleum prices. The pay and pension of government servants need at least thirty percent increase to meet the inflation rate. Finally, Mr. President! You must develop a system of a controlled democracy to counter the security risks. The National Security Council must be empowered to play its role so that there is no need for Martial Law in future. Pakistan Army needs love not hatred by her country men. You have done a lot for your Sohni Dherti, so kindly do this last act of kindness for your nation before you decide to step down gracefully without any impeachment. May GOD bless you. Long live Pakistan. ALLAH HAFIZ.

Monday, June 23, 2008


Political grid: Pakistani politics made easy


One is hearing a lot about it being a defining moment in Pakistan's history. Political parties and the civil society organizations are exhorting people to seize the moment, come out on the street and decide once for all how the country is to be run. Such calls and their general acceptance clearly demonstrate the sorry state Pakistan as a country finds itself in the 60th year of its existence.

It is a common theme of political parties both in the government and in the opposition supported by the civil society organizations that popular will as expressed in a free and transparent general election should be the starting point for constructing a new social contract that will set forth the direction for our country. This simple solution however becomes a big task as our history does not have examples of general elections those were considered free and fair except for one held in 1970 and there too the popular will as expressed at the ballot box was not accepted by the ruling junta. One however hopes that both the rulers and the ruled have learnt lessons from history and there is a sincere wish now to take our country out of current mess and start a rebuilding process in which all will be the winners as citizens of Pakistan.

Assuming that we are to have general election this year, the result of which will be acceptable to all, it becomes important that the political parties position themselves very clearly in front of the electorate to help them make informed decision rather than getting swayed by rhetoric of which we have had enough. The more these parties define themselves, the more it will help the citizens of Pakistan to seize this defining moment in our history. Political parties owe this to the people of Pakistan.

Our current political landscape highlights two basic issues on which we the people have to take decisions that can have far reaching consequences. First is choice between Dictatorship and Democracy and the second is that between Liberalism and Militancy. Unfortunately we have reached a stage where we cannot decide on one and postpone the other. We have to decide on both within this year in the general election.

In an effort to give these issues a framework for better understanding, a political grid is developed which highlights the choices available to the electorate.
The terms used are defined as follows:

Dictatorship: A leader with absolute power, usually by force

Democracy: The free and equal right of every person to participate in a system of government, practiced by electing representatives of the people who then take steps in line with peoples' aspirations

Liberalism: A belief in tolerance and gradual reform in moral, religious, or political matters

Militancy: Aggression in the defence or support of a cause be it religious or nationalist, often to the point of extremism including use of force

Political Grid













The political grid gives us four choices related to two big issues confronting us i.e. Liberal Democracy, Liberal Dictatorship, Militant Democracy and Militant Dictatorship.

These systems of government are in use around the world and one can plot countries in this grid. That exercise if undertaken will make it easier to highlight the positives and negatives of the particular system as practiced to the people of that country.

It is generally said that no system is good or bad but it is the way it is run. Going by that dictum, these are choices and whichever is preferred by the majority of people of Pakistan as expressed at the ballot box should be acceptable to all. It is also assumed that all political parties, whatever agenda and its implementation strategy they are pursuing, have general well being and development of people of Pakistan as their objective. It is pertinent to point out at this stage that the world at large will also have a view on whatever form of government we decide as no country whether big or small can hope to survive and prosper in isolation in today's world of both political and economic interdependence.

An attempt has been made to plot main political parties in different boxes of the political grid based on their current postures.

Liberal Democracy

PPP clearly qualifies as a liberal democrat however the question mark on its democratic credentials is rumours regarding a deal with General Musharraf. MMA when it talks of supremacy of constitution and rule of law and belief in peoples' verdict in general elections comes out as a liberal democrat but when it supports religious militants who challenge state authority through illegal means it falls into the category of militant democracy. PML (N) fits in as a liberal democrat but creates confusion when it maintains silence on religious militancy or aligns itself with the MMA.

Liberal Democracy as a form of government is adopted by most of the developed world. Francis Fukuyama in his landmark essay 'End of History' considers it a winner and an accepted norm universally.

Liberal Dictatorship

Current government set-up led by General Musharraf and supported by PML (Q) and MQM fits in here. However, appeasement policy of PML (Q) towards religious militants and MQM use of militant tactics in its strongholds negates its liberal posturing. Both PML (Q) and MQM state their belief in democracy. They can qualify for liberal democrat position if they demonstrate their democratic mind-set by facilitating holding of free and transparent general elections this year.

Singapore is an example of a country achieving its economic miracle under liberal dictatorship and now gradually moving towards liberal democracy.

Militant Democracy

This is the most dangerous form of governance in the political grid as it can quickly turn into a militant dictatorship without a general acceptance from the electorate. Remember Hitler came into power in Germany through this route. MMA government in the NWFP when it encourages or remains quiet on acts of vigilantism in the province fits in here.

Iran is an example of a country run under this form of government.

Militant Dictatorship

None of our political parties supports this form of government. Militant Dictatorship has never happened through the will of the electorate; it can be an outcome of spiraling down from militant democracy.

North Korea as a country comes into this category.

It is now for our political parties well aware of our history and having experienced both ups and downs of power and its use and abuse to place themselves honestly in the grid for people of Pakistan to make an informed choice. They owe it to us in this defining moment of our history. If they have self belief and honesty of purpose then they should not have any hesitation or shame in saying loud and clear what they stand for. Majority of the electorate may be illiterate but they are not ignorant, they will discern wobbliness and expediency and reject them.

It becomes paramount responsibility of the Media in this election year to ensure that our political parties position themselves very clearly in front of the people on twin issues of Dictatorship vs. Democracy and Liberalism vs. Militancy. Use of political grid will help it in this venture.


A New Dawn
Printed in The Nation dated Friday, May 23, 2008

We finally have a popular, democratically elected government. This is a wish that has come true after a long wait and struggle. We all yearned for it after experiencing the ups and downs of the military and civil governments over the last 60 years. We all felt that a democratic order despite its failings is a much lesser evil as compared to the dictatorial military rule. We were all very happy that our political leaders were acknowledging their mistakes and promising us a new beginning. We all believed that only a democratic government representing the will of the people could keep the country united and resolve the multifaceted problems facing us including those of extremism and terrorism.

Our hopes showed signs of fulfilment when the coalition governments were sworn in at the federal and the provincial levels. We saw our political leaders showing sagacity and political maturity. We had our prime minister and the chief ministers in the provinces unanimously elected.

The bitterness of the past was all forgotten and it was a march forward in line with the Charter of Democracy (a document which some of us even equated with the Magna Carta) signed earlier between our two main political parties. We all felt that this prevailing spirit of understanding and accommodation would help in establishing democracy on a firm footing in our country.

We believed that a democratic order in which all the four federating units had a stake would help us in becoming a cohesive and strong Pakistani nation. It would be a government in which the people and their welfare would be a top priority and all the resources would be marshaled to that end.

All these good feelings and hopes are still there but perhaps not in as pristine a condition as they originally were. Our faith that a democratic order - warts and all - is the best system of governance suited to our conditions remains unshaken. We know that long military rule interregnums have always left us worse off as a country and as a nation and nobody knows this better than our political leaders currently at the helms of the affairs. Our political leaders and our people remain aware that the so-called Establishment which has grown from strength to strength is not going to let go without putting up stiff resistance. We know that we can succeed only by remaining united and vigilant and have to be prepared to thwart attempts at creating disunity amongst us.

Unfortunately, while the celebrations on having turned a corner and getting on course for a bright future are still fresh, the deposed judges' restoration and continuous stay of General Musharraf as the president have become issues that can, if exploited by the self-serving anti-democratic forces, put a stop to all hopes of a democratic revival and a New Dawn for our country. Both these issues are critical as anything less than the restoration of the deposed judges would amount to validating the illegal action taken on November 3 last year by the chief of army staff.

And General Musharraf's election as the president while still in uniform was totally against the letter and spirit of the constitution. Our main political parties - PPP and PML-N - are united in the desire of having these judges restored to their just positions and calling General Musharraf an unconstitutional president.

No political party having roots in the people can dare have any other position. The difference of opinion among them is on the modalities and timing of putting these wrongs right. Given time the leadership of both these parties has the vision and commitment to resolve these issues as their festering would be a political suicide for them.

Ordinary people are happy that the elected governments at the federal and the provincial level are now finally in place and making the right noises regarding the issues of great concern for them. However segments of our intelligentsia are turning the judges' restoration and General Musharraf's impeachment into a do or die battle that has to be fought today and are not at all willing to give time to the democratic government to sort out the mess it has inherited in a thoughtful, calibrated manner.

Differences of opinion among the coalition partners are being projected as a correct or "sell-out" stands. Attempts are being made to categorise political leaders as heroes or villains. This pressure is pushing the political leaders to harden their stance and they have started indulging in the game of political point scoring. Watching some of the talk shows on the electronic media, one gets the impression that our hopes of a Grand National government taking us forward towards a better tomorrow are doomed. Mudslinging among the political parties, as seen in the 1990s, is about to start and political leaders would again become a tool in the hands of the Establishment for playing games at which it is quite adept to the detriment of the people.

It is paradoxical that while we suffer military dictatorships for years, our patience runs out in months when a democratic government takes over. We want all the sins of the dictatorial rule atoned for within days and anything less is taken as sheer incompetence, expediency or compromise with the status quo. A sociologist may have an explanation for this but this is an attitude that we should have learnt to curb by now. Our history is full off disasters we could have avoided had we shown patience and faith in a political system.

It has always been our impatience and yearning for a messiah that has landed us into military rules time and again with its disastrous consequences. If we continue with the same attitude we are likely to have no different result. We have to understand that politics is all about taking everybody on board and leaving nobody out in the cold. It is all about negotiations, compromises, agreements and results. Even use of force, when undertaken, is considered a tool for short-term effect and as a part of ongoing negotiation to reach a settlement. All this takes time but the solutions thus arrived at are always for the long term and for greater stability.

It is heartening to see that our political leaders despite provocations continue to show faith in working together and respecting the mandate given by the people. They are quite categorical in their pronouncements in this regard. They know that they can change the system, strengthen state institutions and let democracy take roots in Pakistan only by staying together.

They are aware that there are strong forces looking for an opening to sabotage this process. It is the duty of the civil society, including the media that political leaders are supported in this endeavour and are allowed to work at their own pace. Democracy can only work when we develop the patience to give the elected government time for which it is elected to deliver on its promises. If it fails to meet peoples expectations then comes election time it will meet its Waterloo.

At times two political parties can provide totally different solutions to the same issue. This does not mean that one is right and the other is wrong. It is their way of looking at the issue and in the end it is for the electorate to decide which party it would repose its confidence in. TV channels talk shows hosts who have gained well-deserved stature in a short time due to their ability and knowledge are advised to encourage unity among the coalition government partners, discourage attempts to turn differences of opinions into a make or break situation and avoid forcing the political leaders into tight corners in their enthusiasm to reduce everything to black and white, here and now.

A new dawn is beckoning us from afar. Will we march towards it together or will our steps falter due to impatience, as has happened many times in our past?

Sunday, June 22, 2008

What ails Pakistan as a State & as a Society.

What ails Pakistan as a State & as a Society : Author : Jamil Zaidi . The existing region of the Sub-continent within which Pakistan falls was a geographically & historically a contiguous part of the sub-continent, which could rightly be called a crucible or melting paot of socio-cultural and ethnic values of Aryans, people coming from Central Asian States, Phoenicians, and semitic civilizations. After an initial phase of turmoil, something akin to the modern concept of secularism and socio-religious tolerance emerged; which was taken for granted and spirit of coexistence reigned supreme. After the initial prehistoric phase of Hindu rule, Buddhism flourished under Ashoka the Great, and its relics consisting of innumerable stupas, monasteries, and plaques ae still found all over India; particularly in the Gandhara area of NWFP and Afghanistan. Despite the monarchy remaining order of the day, Panchayat system was a seed sown which was later to become an innate desire for democracy in the Hindu temperament despite a rather harsh discriminaion based on the local caste system.

It was followed immediately by Muslim invasion under the command of Muhammad Bin Qasim on the kingdom of Raja Dahir, and Muslims ruled in one form or the other-generally leaving their army commanders to found their own dysnasties; ultimately founding Mughal Empire after the Mughal conquest in 1526 AD. This consistent interaction between two different bahavioural configurational groups unfolded the realities of Hegelian theory of Cyclical change bwefore it was put forward by Hegel centuries later. Hindu & Muslim culture intermingled thus displaying a spirit of mutual tolerance on social occasions like marriage & child birth etc. This became a basis for secularism allowing breathing space to Hindus & Muslims living side by side and participating in each others family functons etc.Whereas Hindus had all along been leading in agriculture, commerce, and trade, Muslims lived by and large on the income fromtheir lands leased out to Hindu tnants in their capacity as feudal lords. These lands had been generally transferred to them by Muslim rulers for their allegiance particularly during war. These feudals were not particularly inclined towards education; because record-keeping was generally left to Hindu Munshis. Tables turned during British period, because Hindus occupied places of prominence; whereas Muslims were unemployed and living below poverty line.

Hindus organised themselves politically under the aegis of Indian National Congress founded by Mrs Annie Besant; whereas there was no party worth the name for representing Muslim India. Muslim League founded on the occasion of partition of Bengal in the Year-1906 under the patronage of Nawab of Dacca failed to deliver the goods & Muslims generally gathered under the banner of Congress for achieving Independence from the British. They were further disillusioned when Congress went back from its commitment of granting proportional representation to Muslims in accordance with the agreement under Lucknow Pact-1916. Congress on the other hand became a strictly Hindu party (without professing it in so many words) under the leadership of Bal Ganga Dhar Tilak, a bigoted Hindu; who professed non-cooperation with the British in all sphere including recruitment when World War-l was almost at its end in 1918

Friday, June 20, 2008


Reawakening of Pakistan : Major(R)Khalid Nasr



The common man in Pakistan is not bothered about Musharraf or restoration of Judges. He is interested in a peaceful & respectable living. We have seen civilian dictators like Mr Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif. The people of Pakistan welcomed Musharraf on his take over. Currently, the lawyers & media are behaving like a mafia. They want to force their decisions on the parliament & PPPgovernment. There are certain issues that can be better handled through Courts and Ballot boxes. Imposition of minority's decision on the majority of Pakistan's population is not justified. The fundamentalists & extremists in Pakistan may also take a lead from this. This has become a second nature in Pakistan that, whenever, some thing goes wrong, we put blame on RAW not realizing that it may be an internal “SAW” that is cutting the throats of innocent people in Pakistan. India is a stake-holder of what happens in Pakistan. Now the perception of a common man in India has improved. The fact is that there is a leadership crisis on the political chess board of Pakistan. There are some commonalities in the vision of the Army Chief, General Ashfaq Kiyani, President Musharraf and Zardari. It is hoped that they would be able to handle this situation of violence & extremism in Pakistan. Pakistan's foreign policy would have to be redesigned and more focus should be towards China & Iran. Pakistan's relations with India would also improve in the coming years. As far as the state of violence & extremism is concerned, the majority of people in Pakistan believe in “enlightened moderation.” There are few Pakistani Muslims who are unable to find a difference between Jihad & terrorism. This situation will also improve through better control on Madrassas. US funding to Pakistan for anti-terrorism operation will not be stopped but definitely it would be curtailed to a limited amount. The immediate tasks’ priorities should be better infra structure, good governance, quality leadership, economic and education growth, terrorism and extremism, Kashmir issue and Foreign policy. A common man in Pakistan is very optimistic about the future of Pakistan.It would be better if we go through the following ground realities:1) Pakistan Muslim league had her roots in combined India; therefore, some good leadership had been witnessed in the early years of Pakistan.2) During Ghulam Mohammad's regime, political leaders created an opportunity for General Ayub Khan to take over.3) Bhutto created the environments under which Ayub Khan was forced to hand over to Yahya Khan.4) Bhutto created a political scenario that led to the debacle of 1971 and he took over as first Civilian Martial Law Administrator.5) Bhutto used his political and military force against the common men of Pakistan as a dictator. The opposition leaders invited Army through their letters to Generals. 6) General Zia accepted this invitation that led to Bhutto's judicial murder.7) 1988 to 1999 was the period of the so called democracy in which the nation witnessed the 'power---hide and seek' between Benazir and Nawaz. Nawaz took aggressive actions against President, Chief Justice and Army Chiefs as a Dictator. This scenario led to take over by Army. Now when Army has decided to refrain from enterference in government affairs , the entire nation is in the state of bewilderment whether any of the political leader in the arena is capable and trust worthy enough to lead them out of the present crises on the geo-political front. The credibility of both Nawaz & Zardari is shining on the future of Pakistan. God bless Pakistan and give some 'hidayat” to our political leaders to change their mindset and bring the country out of the state of now or never. Musharraf has decided to step down in due course of time but still every political leader is on the musical chair to get the credit for it. Problem with Pakistan is that every ruler thinks that he/she knows all and understand the people the best. People of Pakistan are never given an opportunity to decide their own fate. Ruler or combination of rulers are always thrusted on them. Therefore, they never feel a stake in the government and are not united as a nation even after 60 years. They will continue to despair unless provided a chance to form their own government on a regular basis through a free and fair election under the Constitution. Nothing else is going to work. We shall continue seeing today's villians coming back as heroes be they from military or civilian set-up. This nation has a lot of talent---it just needs a leader with vision to lead in a charismatic way.May God bless Pakistan. _________________WISHING YOU HEALTH & HAPPINESS . MAJOR(R)KHALID NASR



In a democratic society, political parties are expected to play a significant role in articulating citizen's aspirations, but unfortunately, our political leaders have no personal vision or agenda to improve the condition of a common man and to face the challenges in the geo-political environment. An individual’s death takes place when his soul leaves his body; which is unavoidable whereas; a nation dies when there is a leadership crises and no effective leader is on board to take over. The history of Pakistan is full of incidents when our political leadership invited army to intervene in state affairs. Starting from Ghulam Mohammad to Musharraf, the opposition and common men of Pakistan always welcomed take over by the army. There is a general misconception in an Army general's mind that the civilian leadership is corrupt and incompetent. To some extent this conception is right also. We can take examples of Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif. Now the people of Pakistan want a change towards a civilian led democracy. Pakistan has seen enough traumas in her life and needs a respite. Our Sohni Dharti is too precious to be left to opportunists and carpet braggers. Election campaign has already begun; however, the main crisis a common man faces is a regime that is not delivering what the people want: they want rule of law and improvement in the life of a common man, while preserving the citizens’ basic human rights. The country is chock full of political parties but not a single one of them has the vision and strategy to change the miserable condition of a common man, and to handle the issues that Pakistan is confronting. A deal between Musharraf and Benazir Bhutto runs afoul of the two basic fault lines that will determine the future of democracy in Pakistan. These require a balance between the: Civil -Military relations in governance of the country; and The moderate------- extremist division in the society. The next two to three months are very crucial for redesigning Pakistan’s foreign policy. Pakistan will have to take a firm stand regarding her relations with U.S.A. After the so called restoration of democracy in Pakistan, things would not be all that easy for Gen.Musharraf. As a civilian president, Gen.Musharraf will be having more power and public trust in certain areas; but would also be facing some pressures regarding the foreign policy issues. The relations with USA, China and Iran will take a positive turn from Pakistan’s perspective. US interference in Pakistan's internal affairs and the violation of international boundary laws on our Western border would be strictly dealt with. Let us hope that in the coming scenario the "Troika” comprising, the President , the Prime Minister and the Army Chief will work under mutual trust, respect and coordination to bring Pakistan out of its current crises and be able to face the global challenges. PAKISTAN HAD BEEN MANIPULATED BY THE OPPORTUNISTS & CARPET BRAGGERS.REPEATED TAKE OVERS BY ARMY WAS BASICALLY DUE TO FAULT-LINE IN MIND-SET OF OUR POLITICIANS. THEY HAD ALWAYS BEEN DEPENDENT ON ARMY FOR THE SOLUTION OF THEIR PROBLEMS. CONSIDERING THE POLITICAL HISTORY OF BHARAT ( I WOULD PREFER TO USE THE WORLD BHARAT RATHER THAN INDIA FOR OBVIOUS REASONS), WE FIND NOT A SINGLE OCCASION WHEN THE POLITICIANS LOOKED UPON THEIR ARMY FOR THE SOLUTION OF THEIR POLITICAL ISSUES. I PERSONALLY FEEL THE NEED OF A PARADIGM SHIFT IN THE MIND- SET OF OUR POLITICIANS. THEY SHOULD BE MORE FLEXIBLE IN THEIR THINKING,THEY SHOULD ALLOW MORE SPACE TO THEIR OPPONENTS .In fact the nature of this political malady is twofold in as much as Muslim Leadership (except for the Quaid) were not prepared for Independence; and quaid didn't make any bones out of this when he admitted' I find nothing but counterfeit coins when I search my right & left pockets'. He further went on to say,'I and my typewriter made Pakistan'. On the other hand, Mr Abdul Aziz Malwada warned in his letter addressed to the Quaid,'Muslims are backward financially, intellectually, economically, and socio-politically, whereas Indian National Congress has taken them to the position where they are standing with their back to the wall after LUCKNOW PACT. Under the circumstances, Muslims would be left with no other option, but to ask for a separate homeland. For running its day-to-day affairs, they would be finding themselves helpless in the absence of political institutions, but for Army wherein they are present in size able number. Hence the affairs of this country per force would be run by Army. It is also a fact, that Muslims were represented by Army Officers in the Boundary Commission & Muslim troops were awaited badly to save Muslims from the massacre in East Punjab etc. Whereas Quaid was given the lease of life just for one year (due to being in advanced stage of Tuberculosis)after partition, the political leadership was found wanting in intellectual acumen & moral fibre.Consequently the high-handedness of Ghulam Muhammad as Governor-General and the notorious Tamiz-ud-din case by Justice Munir laying down the law of necessity; which ultimately was to result in secession of East Pakistan. General Muhammad Ayub Khan (assuming the title of Field Marshal against internationally accepted standards for this rank)indulged in all kinds of irregularities including the ones for which Captain (Retired)Gauhar Ayub was well-known in the context of his connections with GANDHARA INDUSTRIES and his firing on Karachi mob,and the High-handedness shown against Miss Fatima Jinnah (sister of the Father of Nation)were by no means a credit to the country. Miss Jinnah's death in mysterious circumstances was also not a very happy reflection to the country. Thus started a trail of unfortunate events with Military Rule coupled with political incompetence of the Leadership, which was never allowed to grow. History is full of the names of Military Leaders like Ayub Khan,Zia-ul-Haq, and Yahya Khan who was held finally responsible along with Z. A. Bhutto (starting the legacy of the so called Martial Law Administrators) who was hanged by General Zia-ul-Haq for the murder of late Mr Qasuri. Hence Pakistan became a political arena for adventurers both from the Civil and the Army. Society being the same, both sides excelled each other in political adventurism & gravest possible irregularities at the cost of national interests. _________________WISHING YOU HEALTH & HAPPINESS . MAJOR(R)KHALID NASR


By Major(R)Khalid Nasr
When we go through the history of Pakistan a few faces appear on the political chess board. Muslim league has its roots in combined British India therefore some good leaders emerged on the political scenario. A democratic society demands a significant role by political parties in articulating citizen's aspirations. They are dependent on people's support and trust to play their role as a link between people and state. All major political parties in Pakistan indulge in an undemocratic malpractice of becoming life-time chairpersons. Our political leaders have no personal vision or agenda----party agenda is blindly followed irrespective of the changing scenario. The track records of our political leaders have made them a security risk. The roles played by Benazir, Nawaz Sharif and Altaf Hussain are an open secret. They openly discuss Pakistan’s security issues with American, European and above all Indian media. It is important for our national security that a limited role by army be institutionalized ---leading to a controlled democracy. National Security Council is an ideal institution for this purpose. Therefore, keeping in view the geo-political scenario, it is suggested that we should revert back to the Presidential System in Pakistan, our political class is basically made up of feudal lords. Their top priority had been their self and local interests rather than national interest. There is a hope and expectations from our political leadership. There is a need of a change in the mind-set of our political leaders. Instead, of allowing a revolving door for our tried and tested leadership, where they swap leadership positions; young blood with vision and initiative must be encouraged. This demands nothing else but regular elections within our political parties. It would not be wrong; if we adopt a two party system in Pakistan; because a multi -party system creates political instability and a weak government; generally dependent upon forming coalitions. The road to democracy has to be incremental and controlled. We must learn to crawl, before we walk. In the road to democracy, we must take small steps; instead of making giant leaps; which lead to turmoil. Instead of being aggressive and violent; the movers and shakers for the struggle for civilian led democracy; should let the Supreme Court and ballot box decide the future democracy in Pakistan. Basic fault lies in the fact that Feudalism (which doesn't allow democract to flourish) wasn't abolished in Pakistan; whereas it ceased to exist almost immediatly after partition. Both Indians & Pakistanis had their exposure to democracy through Parliamentary & not Presidential form of Government. Despite other odds, the experiment was successful in India and a failure in Pakistan.Why, the answer has already been furnished above. Besides, Presidential form is fraught with risks of all sorts. Whereas political abuse of power is a prevalent practice in US, it is almost unknown in UK. These two represent the role models of their respective forms. The former was a new nation bereft of the experience of ages; which the latter enjoyed apart from the World experience earned during colonial period. Apart from it, US stood isolated socially, politically, and geographically; hence their experience was also limited. We in Indo-Pak lived under absolutely monarchy during Muslim period, though elemental democracy was seen in the institution of Panchayats during Hindu period.When we compare the two nations, we reach the conclusion that Bharat learned a lot during British period, unfortunately we didn't. The secret of success doesn't lie in sommersaults, but in a firm resolve to learn from experience irrespective of the fact whether it resulted in success of failure. _________________WISHING YOU HEALTH & HAPPINESS . MAJOR(R)KHALID NASR


HR development for HVACR Industry
By Major(R)Khalid Nasr
Human Resource Development had remained a neglected area in Pakistan both in Public & Private Sectors. Present Government is taking some positive steps in this field. Business success in Pakistan is measured in terms of profitability & tangible assets of a business. This paradigm has now shifted to Quality of Human Resource. It is the quality of Human Resource that will determine chances of success or failure in business. Human Resource Development means investing in your people, training them for their best performance in their present job and developing them for their future roles. As competition is becoming more intense, the quality of Human Resource is becoming increasingly important. Companies are forced to develop human resources for their economic survival. Nations develop human resources for economic prosperity. Individuals develop themselves for better employability & progress.

Importance of HR Development for HVACR
HVACR is a very technical industry, which need a fully trained & developed workforce. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to develop the skills base & intellectual capital the organization requires as well as ensuring that the right quality of people are available to meet present & future needs. Technological innovations require training for affected employees. Competitive pressures are also changing the ways organizations operate and the skills that their employees need. HVACR has to take a proactive approach towards the development of its Human Resource.
Total quality management implementation is as important in the training & development of HVACR Human Resource as it is for the products of HVACR because it is not only the gun but the man behind the gun is equally important for success / victory. HR Development is concerned with the provision of learning, development & training opportunities in order to improve individual, team and organizational performance.

Categorization of HR in HVACR Industry for the purpose of Training & Development

a. Skilled labour
b. Semi-skilled labour
Mechanics & Technicians for Installation of HVACR Equipment
Engineers for Designing & Supervision
Staff for Operations & Maintenance
Sales Force
Managerial Staff for Administration

HVACR’s Strategy For HR Development

HVACR should develop a strategy focusing on a learning organization providing an environment in which employees are geared to learn & develop with appropriate support & guidance. The HRD Strategy developed by HVACR should address the critical success factors of the business in the field of product ___ market development, innovation and cost leadership. The HRD Strategy should demonstrate the real link between learning, development and business performance while indicating how these activities will add value and contribute to the achievement of competitive advantage. HVACR Industry should focus on six-factor model of learning organization:
1. Shared Vision
2. Conducive Learning Environment
3. Supportive Culture
4. Empowering Management
5. Motivated Workforce
6. Enhanced Learning
training & development of labour
a. Skilled Labour
· Specialization Courses
· On the Job Training
· Task Force
· Lectures / Presentations
· Quality Circles
· Employee Assistance Program (EAP) / Centers
b. Semi- Skilled Labour
· On the Job Training
· Demonstration
· Coaching & Counseling
· Apprenticeship Programs
· Employee Assistance Program (EAP) / Centers

training & development of mechanics & technicians
· External Training Courses
· Observation & Practice
· Special Assignments
· Coaching & Counseling
· Job Rotation
· Junior Management Boards

training & development of engineers
· Junior Management Board
· Task Forces
· Role Playing
· Specialization Courses
· Management Development Programs
· Case Studies
· Project / Special Assignments

training & development of sales force
· Presentations & Workshops
· Role Playing
· Personality Development Course
· Coaching & Counseling by Marketing Consultants
· Market Research Assignments
· Brain Storming Exercises

management development
Development of managerial staff is the application of planned efforts to assists in maintaining & improving managers for effective achievement of organizational goals. Management development begins by defining goals, assessing management staff’s weaknesses & strengths and developing a long-range plan. Training programs are then established & implemented and finally they are evaluated for effectiveness. Management development should produce the desired change in behaviour.
Following techniques are suggested for development of managerial staff in HVACR Industry:
· External Courses
· In-house Seminars / Workshops
· Guided Self Study
· Mentors
· Task Force
· Management Boards
· Assistant – to – Positions

organizational development for hvacr industry
Organizational Development is a planned & calculated attempt to change the beliefs, attitudes and structure of an organization to adapt to new technologies and market demands in a global competition.
The Organizational Development Techniques / Approaches for HVACR Industry are the following three:
1. Survey Feedback: Organization members are interviewed or a questionnaire is circulated to get their views on the organizational procedures & processes and any change desired by them.
2. Team Building: It focuses on goal setting, interpersonal relations and role analysis.
3. Third Party Intervention: It involves hiring the services of Human Resource Development Consultants.

The real need of today and the future have changed for developing learned managers to learning managers. The model manager is a multiplier manager who brings in synergy in the team thus enhancing & multiplying the outcome / productivity. The learning manager of today stresses participative learning and relates personal knowledge & skill to the projected tomorrow. To learn something new, we have to unlearn certain things that demand a proper attitude towards learning.
The training & development programs simply make a person aware of the growth possibilities and encourage self- help. The urge to acquire knowledge & skill must be strong within the individual that requires proper motivation.

A comprehensive approach, envisaging all possible aspects of Human Resource Development & Management cirsumscribing almost all the essential attributes. I have seldom seen an introduction with so few words with so much of substance. Major (Retired) Khalid Nasr has contributed a really valuable compact article summarising the essentialities & modalities of the subject. I wish him the best of luck & a lot of appreciation from those who read this article. Jameel Zaidi.


Role of Private Institutions in the promotion of Education
by Major (R) Khalid Nasr
Education plays a pivotal role in the development of our younger generation to lead a successful life in this world of global competition. There are many dimensions of education in the development of human personality. It gives us professional knowledge. It teaches us human skills. It puts our mind on creative thinking. It builds our confidence and self-esteem. Now the question is: are the private institutions playing their role for the promotion of education?
We can see a mushroom of private schools and colleges in Lahore but the parents and students are still in a state of bewilderment which institution to join for quality education. First of all, the tuition fee and admission charges of leading institutions in private sector are very high. Secondly, there is no standard criteria for getting admission in these renowned institutions. Back door techniques are used to get admission where the merit is lacking for open competition. It is very difficult for a competent student from a middle class family to get admission in leading institutions on merit.
Now, we see the condition in middle class educational institutions. There is no quality of education in the so-called average educational institutions. The teaching environment and the faculty is not up to the mark. The standard of graduate & postgraduate level is so poor that some institutions are even selling their transcripts & degrees. The government is taking action against these institutions in private sector. The University of the Punjab and Higher Education Commission have set a standard for the operation of these institutions and award affiliations & charters to only those private institutions who qualify the required criteria. Everyday, we see the sign boards of a school or college removed by the concerned authorities but again we see a new entrant in the education sector with a very poor standard of teaching environment and faculty. The tuition culture is also a black spot on our prevailing educational environment in private institutions. Many daytime colleges & schools are converted into tuition centers in the evening. There are some private institutions that have not been awarded charter by Higher Education Commission or affiliation with Punjab University but they are miss-leading or rather cheating the students by putting false statements on their signboards and brochures.
The curriculum offered in most of the educational institutes does not fit in the requirements of the job. Due attention is not given to the professional programs to enable a student to face competitive & professional requirements of the job opportunities in the market. Education does not merely mean academic qualification. What we have to do is to mobilize our people and build up the character of our future generations. In this world of global competition, success of a business is dependent upon the quality of management, which comes through the quality of education.
The basic role of the educational institutions in the private sector is to educate, train and develop the young generation for the successful leadership roles in the practical realms of life. It is not just the degree from a college, which ensures the highest standards of excellence & growth. The basic purpose of training programs should not be to transmit knowledge from books but to impart learning & training to effect changes in behaviours & skills.
The point to note here is whether our educational institutions in private sector are providing an opportunity to explore human capabilities which are not addressed in main stream education and are they willing to modify their curricle's to meet the demands of global competition in the job market. Due to high merit and limited seats in government institutions, the majority of the students join private educational institutions. So the demand of the day is that private institutions should provide quality education at affordable price to fulfill their social responsibility. Disintegrated nations can be transformed into uncanny force by bringing revolutionary changes in their stagnant thinking. We want our younger generation to be flexible, creative and assertive enough to make out dreams true about a progressive, liberal and strong Pakistan.
Education without purpose & direction is a mere waste of time & resources that results in unemployment & frustration. The educational institutions in the private sector should feel their responsibility to provide quality education at affordable price. All of us do not have equal talents, but all of use should have an equal opportunity to develop out talents to have a competitive edge in the global market.
The government has its own role to play which includes monitoring the activities of the educational institutions in the private sector, encouraging those institutions which are playing a positive role in providing quality education at affordable price and taking action against those who are a black spot in the field of education. Wishing you health & happiness. Major(R)Khalid Nasr


Effective Leadership Skills
Major(R)Khalid Nasr
We are facing a leadership crises in Pakistan.Our political leadership lacks Vision , Agenda and Personal Charima.Our leaders are self -interested and deliver only ilp service to the miseries of a common man.
Organizational Leadership is at a premium today and there is a clear recognition of the fact that in most situations the enthusiasm & motivation aroused in people by powerful & positive leadership is the most potent strategic weapon that provides sustained competitive advantage.• Today, management is defined as, “The process of getting things done though others”; whereas leadership is defined as “The process of getting things done willingly through others”. The difference between the two definitions is one word but that word willingness and the degree of willingness aroused determine the effectiveness of the leader. Positive and powerful leader has an extraordinary ability to arouse such degrees of willingness & motivation in people that the impossible seems to become possible. The willingness aroused by a leader in organizational situations translates into achievement & excellence. THREE MAJOR INGREDIENTS OF EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP 1. The ability to develop a climate that is conducive for motivation through personal example. 2. A leader’s ability & confidence to inspire. 3. The ability to comprehend human behaviour and apply this knowledge to people & situation. The various roles played by Effective Leaders of today are identified as follows:1. Envisioner 2. Role Model3. Motivator4. Goal Setter5. Initiator6. Decision Maker7. Informer8. Conflict Resolver9. Controller10. Team Builder11. Spokesman12. Crises Manager MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE LEADER Intellectual Characteristics: 1. Originality2. Far-sightedness3. Receptiveness4. Decisiveness5. Sense of Timing6. IntelligencePersonality Characteristics1. Personal Integrity2. Self-confidence3. Emotional Balance & Control4. Adaptability5. Assertiveness6. Tough Mindedness7. Resourcefulness8. Tolerance of Stress9. Perceptual Objectivity10. High Need for Achievement Task Related Characteristics: 1. Task Knowledge & Expertise2. Administrative Ability3. Responsibility Acceptance4. Deadline & Schedule Orientation5. Team Management Ability6. Proactive Orientation7. Ability to identify and Focus on Key Issues8. Decision Making & problem Solving Socially Related Characteristics: 1. Humanison & Empathy2. Personal Impact / charm3. Socio-cultural Sensitivity4. Interpersonal and Social Networking5. Social Participation & Friendliness 6. Tact & Diplomacy LEADERSHIP SKILLS A leader must have some basic skills to perform his duties effectively. A list of suggested leadership skills critical to success in the global economy includes the following: 1. CULTURAL FLEXIBILITY: Cultural awareness and sensitivity _______ recognize and celebrate the value of diversity in their organizations. 2. COMMUNICATION SKILLS: Written, verbal, body language & listening skills. 3. HRD SKILLS: Development of the human resources _____ training ,career counseling, job evaluation. 4. CREATIVITYProblem solving, innovation, setting goals and assisting subordinates to be creative. 5. SELF MANAGEMENT OF LEARNINGLearning is a continuous process ______ learning new methods, skills and technology ______ must be self-learner. 6. MANAGING TIME & STRESS.7. DELEGATING8. MOTIVATING & INFLUENCING OTHERS9. TEAM BUILDING10. MANAGING CONFLICTS SKILLS & ABILITIES FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP • Social Objectivity: Ability to act free of racial, ethnic, gender or other biases.• Inner work Standards: Ability to set & meet highly personal work goals.• Self-Understanding: Ability to recognize one’s strengths & weaknesses.• Introspection: Ability to learn from experience & self-study.• Vision: Ability to imagine a different & better situation and ways to achieve it.• Entrepreneurism: Ability to spot & take advantage of opportunities.• Empowerment: Ability to share influence & control with others. EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP TRAITS• Intelligence & Analytical Ability• Energy & Personal Drive • Self- Confidence• Dominance & Assertiveness• Desire to Lead• Honesty & Integrity• Knowledge & Expertise• Need for Achievement• Creativity & Intuition VARIOUS TYPES OF BEHAVIOUR DISPLAYED BY EFFECTIVE LEADERS 1. Consideration: It is the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern for subordinates.2. Initiating Structure: The degree to which a leader concentrates on groups’ goal attainment.3. Reward Behaviour: The extent to which a leader provides his subordinates with compliments, tangible benefits and desired specific treatment.4. Punishment Behaviour: The leader’s use of reprimands or unfavourable tasks assignments and active with-- holding of rewards. _________________WISHING YOU HEALTH & HAPPINESS. MAJOR(R) KHALID NASR

Thursday, June 19, 2008



PAKISTAN-----my Sohni Dherti is undergoing a very critical situation .This critical situation demands a lot from our political leaders and our heart & soul---our beloved Media. There is a strong need of a change in our mind-set . It is said "service before self ". Have we ever practiced it in Pakistan? Pakistan needs Patriots----not “Patriot PPP “ but patriots in real sense . Pakistan should come first & foremost rather than our personal interest . National Reconciliation—is it in personal interest or national interest?? Our beloved Media had been painting a very negative picture about the situation in Pakistan that led to Emergency & PCO. We are still suffering from the after effects of the PCO & Emergency.This is high time that we should have a positive & realistic approach-----may it is our media or political leaders .The nation has tried & tested the role played by our political leaders but now a change in their mind-set is the need of the day .The Media must also mend her ways and try to see the half-filled glass . In my opinion the glass is always full---with air ---if not with liquid .Our political leaders have agreed on removing Musharaf but they do not have an agenda or approved alternative leadership . Every political leader has personal aspirations. Our political parties must develop some ethics & rules of business. My nation is tired of listening to PPP disclosing the corruption stories of Nawaz League and Nawaz league charging Mr. Ten Percent.Now they are united ---is it national interset or personal interest?How long this marrige of covenience would cotinue.Our leadership is not serious even to them selves.They are just wandering in the vision analog. Let us be sincere to our –selves if not to our nation. I am personally against military take –overs -----but unfortunately it was always our political elite that invited military Generals. I request media & our political leaders to change their mind set and let the democratic process continue. WISHING YOU HEALTH & HAPPINESS. MAJOR(R) KHALID NASR